Stress management programs are being done in various institutions and health units. Here in the health centers the programs are design to provide information on the general cause and effects of stress. Also concerns what you are going to have when you join the program are some techniques of how to deal with stress. You will be given lessons on how to develop a personal stress management style. These types of programs are good take the case of stress management; here you receive help on how to improve interpersonal relationships and increase the moral and productivity of every body taking part in this enriching program. It also empowers the participants with skills like leadership skills and listening skills. Those who are in charged of this stress management programs are professionals in the following fields’ counselors, psychologist and educators. The programs are organized in way that participants study in an interactive and dynamic class. To go ahead this management programs are design to aide people in bringing down their stress levels. Therefore if you are part of the program you are going to gain skills in rational thinking techniques, healthy diet, self esteems, time management, managing difficult situations, problem solving and relaxation techniques. Life balance programs in stress management base its attention on achieving a healthier mind and body. Therefore in the program discussions are base on covering healthy eating, alcohol, or drug use, healthy relationships, money management, physical activity, sleep, spirituality and time management. When it comes to working and overall health, stress management always comes in to reduce employees stress and also go ahead to improve their health. The first step of this program is geared towards educating the employees about the basic nature, sources, symptoms and consequences of stress. In the middle part of the program you will be taught the various stress management skills such as muscle relaxation, biofeedback, meditation and cognitive restructuring. Holistic stress management program is a workplace stress management program. One advantage of this program is that it improves the self confidence, self control, communication and adaptability of workers. Another important aspect of stress management is that it can be done online. Telephonic and online stress management programs are taken care of by various health centers. On the part of counselors, they help individuals to set realistic goals, establish action plans and identify motivation techniques. Some centers conduct vacation trips. Multimedia entertainment and stress management program can reduce stress with images and music. To conclude, there have been a few efforts to determine the efficacy of stress management programs and techniques. To this effect there was an experiment conducted by Bruning and Frew conducted, using a control group and techniques where combined in a variety of ways. The first control group was drilled in educational programs without any skills in training programs, the result of this experiment were not quite encouraging. Therefore there was need for a second experiment and the next control group was given Skills training and Meditation techniques and they displayed remarkable reduction in depression, hostility and anxiety. There was no apparent effect on job stress and blood pressure among the members of the control group while the other groups experienced reductions.
Archive for Management
Adoption of the management style that we commonly call ‘management by objectives’ is a key requirement of all the management system standards including ISO9001, ISO14001, TS16949, OHSAS 18001 IiP and their derivatives. How well the organisation embraces and practices the management by objectives style can have a direct relationship to how successful the management system is in driving business improvement and consequently how beneficial the management system(s) are to the business. The process should commence with setting or reviewing current policy statements. When writing that all important policy statement, I believe the best approach is to consider what the customer expects from the company, and draft a policy statement that provides both confidence and re-assurance to customers that their needs will be met, and to include some commitments to outline how the company will meet such a commitment. ISO900, ISO14001, OHSAS18001, TS16949 also require the inclusion of commitments to continually improve the management system and implied in this is a commitment to improve business performance. In other words define the policy from a customer perspective not an organisational perspective. This approach stands for ISO14001 environmental and OHSAS health and safety systems too, for which the ‘customers’ can be identified as employees, stakeholders and interested parties. Objectives should then be defined that support the policy statement. If your policy statement includes a commitment to inform and develop the competence of staff, then support this with defined objectives for staff development, competence reviews, communication meetings, training plans etc. If your policy statement includes a commitment to complete projects on time, then set an objective to measure it. A well known management phrase says ‘if you can’t measure it you can’t control it’ so make sure your objectives are measurable. An acronym often used for objectives is to say they should be ‘SMART: S= Specific M= Measurable A= Achievable R= Realistic T = Time bound Objectives set in this way can be measured and (hopefully) achieved. The conducting of regular management reviews is a requirement common to: ISO9001, ISO14001, TS16949, and OHSAS18001 The standards define inputs to these reviews in the form of specific data (often performance related) that should be reviewed. Reviews are normally carried out in top level management meetings and can of course include additional agenda items to those which are defined in the management system standards. Review meetings are the main focus for overseeing the management of the system and for identifying opportunities and actions for improvement. The review will look back at performance against the objectives for the previous review period and will review and set objectives going forward. Reviews should be held at sufficient frequency to highlight any performance that is adrift from expectation so that further actions can be considered. In an SME this could be quarterly or 6-monthly and in a larger multi-national may be monthly. Annual meetings are usually too infrequent to ensure that appropriate additional measures are promptly brought about to redress shortfalls in performance. The ISO9001 standard also requires the organisation to check the effectiveness of processes so setting individual improvement targets for each of the processes that make up the quality system is the best approach. Performance against each of these targets can then be reviewed as part of the management review process. Management by objectives is an established principle in most successful major organisations. Learning from the successful is a good lesson for SMEs. Actively embracing the management by objectives principle as the key driver for quality improvement is a pre-requisite to the development of effective and value-adding management systems.
It’s amazing to think that anybody would even need to ask the question “what is management training?”, but then management is a term that gets thrown around so frequently that it can be easy to forget its true meaning and why continuous management training is important for all and any managers in the present day. So what’s management training? Put simply, it’s the method of improving the development and skills of people in management positions. With management training, a manager or a leader in a company should be making better decisions and operate more efficiently. Why is management training important? On-going management training is important because effective management is essential for companies. If a member of staff makes a mistake, it might be a small thing that can be rectified. However, if a manager or leader makes a mistake, it can affect all of the employees working below him or her, which could create a larger ripple effect than the employee’s mistake, and cause more harm to the business, in the short-term and the long-term. It is crucial that companies spend money on management training for their managers on a frequent basis, not only as an one-off effort. Theoretically, the more training a leader or manager gets, the greater chance that they have in making well-informed, confident decisions that’ll help a company in powering through both the good and bad times. Also, they should hold a competitive advantage over similar businesses operating in a similar sector who sell the same kinds of products or services, especially if those other companies don’t make the effort to invest in management training. In what ways can management training be of assistance? Management training can help in numerous ways, such as: Time management: The method of assisting leaders and managers with using their limited time most efficiently. In doing so, they will have more time to spend on more pressing tasks, such as making decisions and changing the way things are done.
People management: Helping a manager to figure out how best to delegate tasks, so that the right people with the relevant abilities are involved with the correct projects and getting the best results in what they’re doing. Resource management: Helping managers to figure out how to correctly use a business’ resources, whether it be goods, financial, equipment, people (see above) or the assistance of a separate department within the company (e. g. IT). Not only that, but depending on the type of managers, you may find that management training is customised, based on their ‘level’ of management. Although a number of the principles will still be the same, the training involved with – and the skills required by – team leaders and middle managers will be very different to what’s involved with Directors and CEOs.
The prevailing image of the Japanese management system in very large companies is very similar, if not the same as the management system used in small Japanese companies, because business management systems are, after all, a product of their particular national culture. How can we explain the Japanese economic miracle? Since the end of World War 2, until about the 1970′s, Japan had experienced a profound economic transformation. By the 1980′s, Japan had become the second largest economy in the world, to the envy and admiration of other nations. This remarkable period of economic prosperity during the latter half of the 20th century has become known as the Japanese ‘Economic Miracle’. There are a range of arguments made by scholars who have attempted to explain the reason behind Japan’s economic success in the late 20th century, and these vary considerably. One of these reasons is that Japan’s economic success has been solely as a result of the culture and traditions of Japan. This argument is based on the assumption that culture is the main contributing factor of a nation’s economy. Morishima has emphasized that in the context of Japan’s economic success, the Confucian tradition of Japan has played a key role, arguing that “religious and ethical systems shape human economic behavior and consequently the nature and performance of their economies. ” Other ideas have been used to understand Japan’s rise to success in the late 20th century such as market regulation, for example, Japan’s response to market signals, bureaucratic regulation by selecting and fostering strategic industries and political, economic and social conditions in Japan. Japan’s successful economy started to decline in 1973 during the oil crisis, when the price of oil quadrupled, acting as a catalyst for economic failure in Japan. Effectively, the high price of oil had negative effects on the Japanese manufacturing industry. Japan responded by focusing its attention from energy dependent industry to a more knowledge-based industry, thus averting the crisis from worsening, and enhancing the health of its economy. Japan experienced a ‘bubble economy’ in the years 1987 – 90. This had come about as the result of asset prices rising far beyond their actual value, particularly those of land and shares. Land prices fell sharply in 1990 when the Bank of Japan increased the official interest rate, thus triggering a massive sell-off of shares. Since this time Japan has faced challenges such as an aging population and the currency crisis in Asia, but has recovered considerably and today still has a strong economy, rivaled by only the United States, China and the European Union. Almost every business policy that the Japanese are well-known for is as a result of the post-World War 2 economic reconstruction in Japan. The first root factor of the modern Japanese management system is a sense of national identity. This is mainly due to the fact that Japan is an isolated, island nation. Actually, this sense of national identity has existed since feudal times in Japan. The second factor of the modern Japanese management system is the notion of Confucianism; while imported from China long ago, the Japanese have their own version of Confucianism, which is central to understanding the modern Japanese management system. Confucianism in Japan has three main aspects; loyalty, filial piety and respect for learning. Loyalty and filial piety in Japan are reflected in Japanese management with honne and tatemae, or one’s own feelings and one’s public stance, which may and often differ between each other according to the individual. Loyalty is also seen in very large companies in Japan, where on graduating from high school or university and entering into employment with a Japanese company, one will usually gain ‘lifetime employment’ with his or her company, thus reflecting the Confucian aspect of loyalty. In this sense, Confucianism plays a major role with Japanese management practices. Group orientation, or shudanshugi also plays an important role in modern Japanese business management practices. This is also a prominent attribute in Japanese society, for example to see a group of Japanese tourists in a foreign country, one will notice that the people in the group will always stay close together. This aspect of Japanese culture is of course also very apparent within Japanese companies, and has been deeply ingrained into Japanese society itself since the Tokugawa period. Shudanshugi can be seen with almost any social aspect of Japan, thus it is evident with both large and small Japanese companies. Although this desire to be part of a group may be also apparent with other countries, Japan in particular sees this group mentality as natural, not an exterior phenomenon as it may be seen with other cultures. Individual responsibility is not important in Japan, as it is in the West. Instead, groups are given the responsibilites. This is another example of the group-orientated ethics of Japan and the Japanese workforce. There are also two types of attitudes towards authority in Japan: kengen and ken’i, or simply, formal authority and personal influence. As such, Japanese companies both small and very large tend to be run on ken’i, personal influence, which is different from a general Western perspective, where emphasis is usually placed on delegated authority. The fourth important aspect of Japanese business culture is based on regional competition, something that has existed in Japan since feudal times. This is not so much an artificial construction of modern Japan, but something that has been rooted in Japanese culture for a long time. For one example, the competition between firms in Japan in the kantou and kansai regions in modern times reflects the regional competition between these same areas as far back as the beginnings of the Tokugawa period. This cultural aspect of modern Japan is probably reflected more visibly in the business management systems more often with very large companies, than smaller companies in Japan. There are two basic forms of obligation in Japanese society, which can be seen in the business culture of Japan. On refers to a debt that is not able to be repaid, for example one’s debt to their parents or the debt incurred from saving another’s life. While it cannot be repaid, one will try to repay it. This type of obligation is also apparent with entering into lifetime employment with a very large Japanese company, and is tied in with the Confucian notion of loyalty. The second form of obligation, giri, is incurred from receiving a favour, such as leasing an apartment to a tenant. Along with the aforementioned aspects of Japanese culture, there are many more aspects present with Japanese culture, and along with it the Japanese management systems of both small and very large companies. In simple terms, Japanese business management styles are a by-product of the Japanese national culture, as such, each type of management system is not much far removed from the other. In fact, we see such cultural aspects in almost any facet of society in Japan. It is immediately apparent that culture influences business practices and in effect business management systems. Entire theses have been written around this idea. One such example is Kahn’s ‘Confucian Economic System’, used to describe Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and Korea’s cultural links to business practices. Kahn describes the features of these ‘neo-Confucian’ economies to be related to a number of factors, including sobriety, a high value for education, a desire to succeed, seriousness about life and a hard-working ethic. Along with a culturally ingrained, Confucian sense of loyalty, there is also a sense of harmony in the Japanese workplace, as there are with the group-oriented mindset of Japanese society. This is evidenced by strike-free workplaces in modern Japan, thus placing an emphasis on co-operation and mutual obligation, rather than equality. The cultural values, relations and structure of modern Japan clearly affect how Japanese society operates, and this is also the case with modern Japanese business management systems in both very large and smaller Japanese companies, as has been proven in this essay. Japan is a very unique country, in that its culture does not completely resemble that of any other one nation, although Japan has borrowed much from other countries to construct its own national identity. It is apparent that Confucianism plays an important role in Japanese culture and in effect its society, business practices and so on. What has been covered in this essay is only a brief glimpse of the complicated and detailed Japanese business management world, including such cultural aspects as group orientation, authority, regional competition, obligations, and overall, the Confucian-based business culture of Japan, which in itself has many important aspects which are used in Japanese social practices and business management systems alike. The reason why the prevailing image of Japanese management systems in very large companies and small companies is very similar, if not the same, is because the Japanese economy, and with it the business structure of virtually any kind of business or large company in Japan is directly influenced by Japanese cultural values, relations and structure, in particular, those of Confucian origin. Many scholars have argued about the reason why Japan has become so successful in the late 20th century, in an attempt to describe the Japanese ‘Economic Miracle’. The first argument that is usually presented is that Japan’s recent economic success is as a result of her culture and tradition. While it has not been proven beyond doubt that this is the only reason behind the ‘Economic Miracle’, it is certainly a compelling argument and clearly demonstrates the powerful influence that culture has over the structure of a national society such as Japan.
As risk management has developed to turn into an ever more popular career option for new business professionals, many different licensed risk manager training programs have become in existence. To become a certified risk manager, those interested can consider acquiring a professional certification or enter a university program catered to obtaining a diploma or degree in risk management. Right now there are not one but two key certifications that the majority of risk management specialists can choose from. These two certifications in addition to a number of courses are detailed below. The first one is The Project Management institute, Risk Management Professional certification . This particular certificate belongs to the top risk management certifications out there. If you would like to obtain this certification, you will need to satisfy the guidelines specified in the next paragraphs. You must have a 4 year degree (bachelor’s or the global equivalent), and have a minimum of three thousand hours of project risk management experience and thirty hours of risk management education. You can also attain your PMI-RMP through a two year college diploma accompanied by at least 4,500 hours of experience in project risk management and forty hours of project risk management education.
As soon as you obtain the previously mentioned expectations, you will be required to complete a one hundred and seventy question multiple-choice exam to obtain the PMI-RMP certification. This exam is not easy and we highly recommend signing up for a proper risk management training class. Classes may be completed through local community colleges or technical schools or online. The other certification is The Institute of Risk Management’s International Certificate in Risk Management. This certification is mostly a European centered risk certification. The CIRM got its start while using ISO31000 risk management process and is growing in popularity world-wide. To be able to acquire this certification you need to join a 6 to 9 month course. At this time there are no formal education requirements; nonetheless, it is strongly recommended that the certification be complementary to a four-year degree or a technical diploma. Eventually, you are required to complete two tests and pass with a 60% or higher grade. Also note, the Institute of Risk Management offers a two-year diploma program in risk management. Attaining a certification in risk management is becoming more and more common today. Both PMI and IRM offer great certification possibilities. We strongly recommend that you give thought to acquiring a formal certification soon.
Performance management; to different populace, holds various connotations. To few, it is just the process of gathering data concerning performance, while others take it to be a name provided to self-evaluation. In actuality, performance management is the feat taken as a reply to performance in a certain task being carried out, or a service being provided in order to improve the outcome. Advancement in the result does suggest and a boost in either the quality or quantity or both of the services being rendered; but it does not always denote an raise in input levels. The capital being invested might still be the same as before; it is only so that they are allocated and utilized more effectively than they were before. The procedure of performance management involves gathering and then evaluating data connected to performance, and taking measures accordingly. On an individual level, it might only consist of personal assessment. nonetheless, on a huge level; such as in a organization, it would involve useful communication between employees, increasing a strong ideology of joint effort, constantly monitoring the staff’s progress and performance and continually revising performance management strategy to make possible further development in the outcome based off of the feedback acquired from regularly noticing performance levels. Performance management does not always, however, guarantee betterment in outcome. The enhancement in outcome by efficient allocation of resources determined by expansively noticing performance and discovering possible frail links in an organisation’s manufacture methods and structure is the spot on reason of performance management and its desired result, not a pre-ordained effect. Performance management alone does not result in betterment of result; it requires progression in certain activities that could be made more effective through enhanced management of its inputs. Novelty and creativity are important for the organizational restructuring or process redesigning required for improving the lacking highlighted by performance management. Only once all this is done can improvement in outcome be assured. The execution of performance management can be done in a variety of ways. One can start by highlighting areas that have need of improved performance and curing it whichever way feasible from the top of a companies hierarchical structure or vice versa. The performance management data gathering; using the standardized or flexible method, can either be focused on certain aspects of a business or be a detailed and comprehensive performance-related accounts of all activities. No matter how performance management might be implemented, it uses facts and data collected to justify the requirement, and pave the way, for improvement. Performance management might have varying uses in different organisations. It might even be implemented differently, depending on an organisations structure and its requirements. However, there are a few key characteristics that all organisations who apply performance management effectively do possess in common. Said organizations efficiently manage performance data and handle it accordingly, which gives them a profound understanding of the companies weaknesses and strengths. Furthermore, they have strong leadership which consequently breeds a getting things done attitude inside the company. Employees are highly motivated as well, as job descriptions are clearly defined and there is clarity over performance related rewards and sanctions.
Facilities management services have gained a huge importance in effective functioning of businesses today. In the past few years, these services have become so prominent that none of the businesses existing today can think of surviving without them. It would not be exaggerating to say that facility management services help an organization in gaining competitive advantage, enhancing productivity and most importantly minimizing your operations expense. Their main function is to optimize an organization’s primary functions and thus provide support for enhancement of core business process. Thus, to avail the above stated advantages, one needs to understand what actually these facility management services are. Common facilities include The general facilities include physical entities such as buildings, complexes, structures or spaces. To be more specific, they can include corporate offices, office buildings, restaurants, bars, movie theaters, banks, hospitals, play grounds, schools, etc. Responsibilities associated with facility management It requires proper management both at strategic and operational levels to maintain a facility properly. Hence the responsibilities associated with facilities management cover wide areas of business functions, such as: •Maintenance of furniture and electronic appliances (like lighting systems, HVAC systems and others) •Space utilization, interior designing etc. •Conducting inspections, approvals and payment of associated fees and costs •Safety and security •Overall cleanliness of the organization •Maintenance of expense records •Maintaining stable financial position of the organization •Check if the activities of business are in compliance with Federal, State and Local laws regarding zoning, reporting of income, operation of a business and employee practices Different businesses – different needs Though there are few needs which are common to every facility or business, there are many specific needs, unique to each business. Let us learn about some specific facility needs, which are unique to each business. •Real estate – Employing skilled labor, acquiring good suppliers, reducing material costs •Retail and shopping malls – Infrastructure management, power management, safety issues, dusting, cleaning and other miscellaneous needs •Offices – Building and ground management, maintenance of building, furniture & furnishings, interior decoration services etc. •Sports complexes – Maintenance of sports complex, equipment, necessary preparation for practice sessions and competitions (marking up sports fields, setting up of equipment, bleachers, chairs, etc. ) and security •Schools – Maintenance of playgrounds, landscaping, toilet cleaning, lighting, acoustics, furniture, transportation, food services, cleaning, etc. •Hospitals – Improving procurement of drug supplies, equipment, clinical units, etc. ; building maintenance, waste management and pest control Business owners outsourcing FM tasks to specialized companies Many businesses these days are keen on outsourcing their facilities management tasks to specialized facilities management companies. These companies design their roles and responsibilities to fulfill distinctive needs of the specific businesses. The main reasons for businesses opting for these services are to reduce costs, need for skilled professionals or equipment and to reduce in-house staff. Benefits provided by specialized facility management services Facilities management services have been very successful and are rapidly gaining importance in every business. This is due to their effective performance, which assures significant benefits for the businesses. Specialized facilities management service providers bring in many benefits such as increased productivity, enable businesses to focus on core functions, optimum utilization of resources, reduction in costs, flexibility in business processes, expert assistance, better services, management of data using business intelligence which facilitates effective decision making, compliance to agreements, laws and contracts; project enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and brand loyalty, etc. Facilities management service is business friendly, which helps a business in effective functioning. Its role in the overall performance of a business is very valuable. Facilities management services not only enhance productivity of a business, but also create a value for it in the market by increasing the customer value.